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Hermann Kaindl
Vienna University of Technology, ICT

Scenario-based Requirements Engineering Facilitating Interaction Design

When the requirements and the interaction design of a system are separated, they will most likely not fit together, and the resulting system will be less than optimal. Even if all the real needs are covered in the requirements and also implemented, errors may be induced by human-computer interaction through a bad interaction design and its resulting user interface. Such a system may even not be used at all. Alternatively, a great user interface of a system with features that are not required will not be very useful as well. Therefore, we argue for combined requirements engineering and interaction design, primarily based on usage scenarios in the sense of sequences of actions aimed at accomplishing some task goal. However, scenario-based approaches vary especially with regard to their use, e.g., employing abstract use cases or integrating scenarios with functions and goals in a systematic design process. So, the key issue to be addressed is how to combine different approaches, e.g., in scenario-based development, so that the result is an overall useful and useable system. In particular, scenarios are very helpful for purposes of usability as well.

Requirements Engineering, Scenarios, Interaction Design

Aims and Learning Objective
In this tutorial, participants will learn about an approach to scenario-based requirements engineering that facilitates interaction design. In particular, participants will understand how scenarios and use cases can be utilized both for requirements engineering and interaction design, though with different emphasis on the level of detail. They will also understand the additional need to specify the functional requirements for the system to be built, even in the context of object-oriented (OO) development. Overall, they will gain a better understanding of early systems design.

Biography of Hermann Kaindl
Hermann Kaindl joined the Institute of Computer Technology at the Vienna Univ. of Technology in early 2003 as a full professor. Prior to moving to academia, he was a senior consultant with the division of program and systems engineering at Siemens AG Austria. There he has gained more than 24 years of industrial experience in software development and human-computer interaction. He has published five books and more than 150 papers in refereed journals, books and conference proceedings. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE, a Distinguished Scientist member of the ACM, a member of the INCOSE and the AAAI, and is on the executive board of the Austrian Society for Artificial Intelligence.

Related Expecience
He has previously held tutorials at CAiSE'00, RE'01, RE'02, HICSS-36, INCOSE'03, RE'03, IUI- CADUI'04, INCOSE'04, RE'04, HICSS-38, IRMA'05, INCOSE'05, AAAI'06, HCI'06, OOPSLA'06, HICSS-40, ICONS'07, IRMA-07, INCOSE'07, AAAI'07, IFIP Interact'07, OOPSLA'07, HICSS-41, ICCGI'08, RE'08, ICSEA'08, ICIW '09 , IFIP Interact'09, SMC'09, HICSS-43 ACHI'10, EICS'10, ICSEA'10, TdSE'10, HICSS-44, SAC'11, INCOSE'11, AAAI'11, RE'11, HICSS-45, SAC'12, ACM CHI'12, PROFES'12, BCS HCI'12, APSEC'12 and HICSS-46.

Detailed Outline
5min Introduction
15min Background
  • Requirements
  • Scenarios / Use Cases
  • Interaction design
  • Object-oriented modeling features and their UML representation
  • Iterative and incremental development
25min Functions / tasks, goals and scenarios / use cases
  • Relation between scenarios and functions / tasks
  • Relation between goals and scenarios
  • Composition of these relations
20min Exercise 1
25min Requirements and object-oriented models
  • Metamodel in UML
  • Requirements and objects
20min A systematic design process
  • Navigation in the metamodel graph
  • Partial sequences of steps
  • Improvements through this process
15min Exercise 2
25min Scenarios / use cases for interaction design
  • Interaction tasks
  • Abstract use cases (Constantine & Lockwood)
  • From abstract use cases to concrete user interfaces (Constantine & Lockwood)
20min Exercise 3
10min Final discussion and conclusion

Target Audience
The target audience is interaction designers, Web designers, requirements engineers, software engineers, systems engineers, or project managers. Also educators will benefit from this tutorial. More generally, this tutorial is targeted towards people who are supposed to work on the requirements or the interaction design in systems development. Whatever the roles of the tutorial participants actually are in their daily work, they should get a better understanding of "other" viewpoints and tasks and, in particular, a common approach.

Other Relevant Information
Selected publications of the proposer related to this tutorial

Kaindl, H., A Design Process Based on a Model Combining Scenarios with Goals and Functions, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC) Part A 30(5), 2000, pp. 537–551.
H. Kaindl, Adoption of Requirements Engineering: Conditions for Success, In Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering (RE'01), Toronto, Canada, August 2001.
H. Kaindl, A Scenario-Based Approach for Requirements Engineering: Experience in a Telecommunication Software Development Project, Systems Engineering, Vol. 8, 2005, pp. 197–210.
H. Kaindl, Combining Requirements and Interaction Design through Usage Scenarios, in: Human-Computer Interaction - INTERACT 2009, Proceedings of the 12th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Part II, LNCS 5727, Springer, 2009, pp. 932–933.
Kaindl, H., and Jezek, R., From Usage Scenarios to User Interface Elements in a Few Steps, in Proc. 4th International Conference on Computer-Aided Design of User Interfaces (CADUI'2002), Valenciennes, France, May 2002.
Kaindl, H., Kramer, S., and Hailing, M., An Interactive Guide Through a Defined Modelling Process, in People and Computers XV, Joint Proc. of HCI 2001 and IHM 2001, Lille, France, September 2001. Springer, London, England, pp. 107–124.
Kaindl, H., Popp, R., and Raneburger, D., Automated Generation of User Interfaces: Based on Use Case or Interaction Design Specifications?, in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Software Paradigm Trends (ICSOFT´12), 2012.
H. Kaindl, D. Svetinovic, On confusion between requirements and their representations, Requirements Engineering, Vol. 15, 2010, pp. 307–311.

Prerequesite Knowledge
The assumed attendee background is some familiarity with scenarios / use cases and basic object-oriented concepts, as well as interest in requirements and interaction design. There are no pre-requisites such as knowledge about HCI or Requirements Engineering in general. Also the small selection of UML notation used will be explained.